Conservation & Science

Fishing for genes via eDNA

Just as steelhead trout migrate from saltwater to freshwater and back, Environmental Sample Processors (ESPs)—first developed by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) for studies in the ocean—have been getting a lot of use in freshwater over the last five years.

Kevan Yamahara and Doug Pargett install a pump system downstream of a fish trap in Scott Creek. The pump system feeds water to an Environmental Sample Processor to sample the DNA of fish in the stream. Photo © 2019 MBARI/Kim Fulton-Bennett

This spring, MBARI’s ESP team installed an instrument to collect samples of “environmental DNA” from a coastal creek just north of Monterey Bay. Researchers will use these samples to track populations of threatened steelhead trout, endangered coho salmon, and invasive species in the creek.

In the process, they could help revolutionize environmental monitoring and fisheries management nationwide.

The research is a joint project of MBARI and the Monterey Bay Aquarium, with funding from the Arthur Vining Davis Foundations as part of their newly launched Environmental Engagement, Stewardship & Solutions program. The work is being carried out in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). It is part of MBARI’s continuing effort to provide scientific data with direct application for ocean and wildlife conservation. Read more…

El impacto profundo del micro-plástico

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(Subtítulos en español están disponibles)

Existe un vasto ecosistema que se extiende muy por debajo de la superficie del océano, en donde la luz es escasa, aumenta la presión y la vida toma formas que bien podrían parecer extraterrestres. Pero incluso ahí, un lugar que parece un mundo apartado de la sociedad humana, nuestra basura plástica se está acumula.

Los científicos del Acuario y del MBARI tomaron muestras de la contaminación por micro-plástico en las aguas profundas usando el vehículo operado remotamente Ventana. Foto: cortesía del MBARI

En el mar profundo, resulta desafiante estudiar dónde se acumula ese plástico y cómo afecta a los animales. Por ello, los científicos del Monterey Bay Aquarium en colaboración con nuestros aliados del Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) lanzaron un ambicioso proyecto.

Los resultados del estudio en el cual se examina el  micro-plástico en las aguas de la Bahía de Monterey, fue publicado el 6 de junio por la revista Scientific Reports.

“Hemos diseñado este estudio para dar respuesta a una brecha fundamental en nuestro conocimiento sobre el plástico marino una vez que este llega al océano” indica la autora principal Anela Choy, anteriormente investigadora del MBARI y actual profesora del Scripps Institution of Oceanography en San Diego.

Los investigadores del MBARI recolectaron larváceos y sus filtros mucosos de alimentación usando vehículos de comando remoto. Foto: cortesía del MBARI.

El equipo de investigación recolectó datos usando vehículos de comando remoto (ROV, por sus siglas en inglés) —submarinos robóticos diseñados por ingenieros del MBARI— para recolectar muestras de agua en profundidades de entre 200 y 600 metros (unos 650 a 2,000 pies).

También buscaron plástico en animales que cumplen importantes funciones en las redes alimentarias marinas: langostinos pelágicos y seres parecidos a los renacuajos llamados larváceos gigantes, que se rodean con nubes de mucosa cuya función es capturar alimento y, en ellos, los investigadores descubrieron plástico.

“Los problemas como este son extremadamente complicados. Para intentar descubrir la manera de resolverlos se requiere de muchas herramientas distintas,” —menciona Kyle Van Houtan, científico principal del Acuario, quien realizó el estudio en coautoría con Anela y otros nueve investigadores de diversos campos que abarcan desde Fisicoquímica hasta Ecología Marina—. Read more…

The deep impact of microplastic

 

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There’s a vast ecosystem stretching far below the ocean’s surface — one where the light dims, the pressure mounts, and life takes on forms that can seem downright alien. But even there, a place that seems a world apart from human society, our plastic trash is building up.

Scientists from the Aquarium and MBARI sampled microplastic pollution in the deep waters of Monterey Bay using the ROV Ventana. Photo courtesy MBARI

In the deep sea, it’s a challenge to study where that plastic accumulates and how it affects animals. So scientists at the Monterey Bay Aquarium and our partners at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) launched an ambitious collaboration.

The resulting study, which examined microplastic in the waters of Monterey Bay, was published June 6 in the journal Scientific Reports.

“We designed this study to answer a fundamental gap in our knowledge of marine plastic once it reaches the ocean,” says lead author Anela Choy, a former MBARI researcher and now a professor at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego.

MBARI researchers collected larvaceans and their mucus feeding filters using its remotely operated vehicles. Photo courtesy MBARI.

The research team gathered data by using remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), robotic submarines designed by MBARI engineers, to collect water samples at depths from 200 to 600 meters (about 650 to 2,000 feet).

They also searched for plastic in animals with important roles in the marine food web: pelagic red crabs; and tadpole-like creatures called giant larvaceans, which surround themselves with clouds of mucus that capture food — and, as the researchers discovered, plastic.

“Problems like this are extremely complicated. To try and figure out how to solve them, you need a lot of different tools,” says Aquarium Chief Scientist Kyle Van Houtan, who co-authored the paper with Anela and nine others, tapping fields from physical chemistry to marine ecology. Read more…

Field studies of ocean acidification

Sometimes, research has to venture out of the lab and into the wild. That’s the basis for a long-term Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) project to study how the ocean’s changing chemistry will affect marine life.

A shallow-water Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (FOCE) system in place near Hopkins Marine Station. Photo courtesy MBARI.

Ocean acidification is a change in seawater pH (and other elements of the ocean carbonate system) as the ocean absorbs excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This change will become more pronounced as people continue to burn fossil fuels.

“It’s important to try to get a better understanding of what impact that will have,” says George Matsumoto, senior education and research specialist at MBARI.

In a more acidic ocean, the minerals used to form calcium carbonate are less abundant, making it more difficult for marine species—from tiny sea snails to oysters and crabs—to build shells or skeletons. MBARI marine ecologist Jim Barry says researchers are working to understand the impact not just on individual animals, but also on broader ecosystems. Read more…

Speaking up for sustainable fisheries

As new members of Congress get up to speed on key issues like oceans and climate, we’re in Washington, D.C., to raise our voice for ocean conservation.

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Jennifer Dianto Kemmerly addressed Congress on the state of fisheries.

On May 1, Jennifer Dianto Kemmerly, the Aquarium’s vice president of global ocean initiatives, testified before the House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Waters, Oceans and Wildlife about the state of fisheries. 

Jenn was invited by Rep. Jared Huffman (D-San Rafael), the subcommittee’s chair, to provide information on the status of U.S. and global fisheries. Building on her remarks to the United Nations in 2017, she provided insight into seafood markets and made policy recommendations to advance the sustainability of U.S. and global fisheries. 

Watch her testimony:

Read more…

Clash of the titans: white sharks vs. orcas

When orcas and white sharks cross paths, only one can prevail as the true apex predator. New research from the Monterey Bay Aquarium published in Nature Scientific Reports details these rare, sometimes brutal encounters — and their ecological implications.

A new study illustrates what happens when orcas and white sharks encounter each other in the wild. Photo © Jim Capwell/www.divecentral.com

It’s a study decades in the making because observations of the two creatures interacting is a rarity.

Scot Anderson, a white shark expert and seasonal researcher for the Aquarium, still remembers one such run-in more than 20 years ago near the Farallon Islands, a short boat ride west of downtown San Francisco.

“The first time it happened was kind of shocking to everybody,” Scot says. “Before we had seen anything like that, people would ask, who’s the baddest predator?”

White sharks are seasonal visitors to the Farallon Islands, where they prey on elephant seals and other pinnipeds. Photo courtesy NOAA

The first scorecard came on October 4, 1997, when orcas killed and partially ate a white shark within view of a whale-watching boat. Scot was heading out from nearby Bolinas when he heard what was happening over the radio.

“We just went straight there,” he says. “We got there right as it was finishing. I saw the two orcas sticking their heads out of the water and squealing like they do when they have a kill. And the shark just sank away.” Read more…

Acceso para personas discapacitadas y conservación de los océanos: Juntos somos más fuertes

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El año pasado, el Acuario pidió a los legisladores de California que aprobaran el proyecto de Ley Straws On Request (popotes a petición). A medida que esa ley entra en vigor, y las comunidades de la Bahía de Monterey adoptan nuevas leyes locales para reducir el uso de plástico de un solo uso, trabajamos con nuestros colegas de la comunidad de discapacitados para asegurarnos de que cualquier persona que necesite un popote de plástico pueda tener acceso a ella.

En el artículo de hoy, Allie Cannington de la Red de Organización de Personas con Discapacidad (DOnetwork por sus siglas en inglés) discute los resultados de un nuevo estudio que evalúa la conveniencia de alternativas a los popotes o popotes de plástico de un sólo uso para las personas que las necesitan. DOnetwork es un programa de la Fundación de Centros para la Vida Independiente de California, financiado por el Departamento de Rehabilitación y el Consejo Estatal para la Vida Independiente.


A partir del 1 de enero de 2019, los restaurantes de servicio completo en California sólo podrán ofrecer popotes cuando los clientes los soliciten. Al mismo tiempo, algunas ciudades y condados de los Estados Unidos están aprobando leyes locales que restringen los popotes y otros materiales plásticos de un sólo uso.

Read more…

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