Tirelessly tracking bluefin tunas

Bluefin tunas are among the ocean’s most fabulous fish. Sleek and strong, they cross oceans in mere weeks, warm their bodies by capturing their metabolic heat,  and live for decades. They’re also prized commodities, especially as sushi in restaurants around the world. Given bluefin’s high cultural and economic value, overfishing has driven some populations of these prized ocean predators into steep decline.

How to rebuild bluefin populations remains a critical question — one science can help us answer.

tuna-in-flume---bugged
Tuna swim in a flume, also known as a “tuna treadmill,” at the Tuna Research and Conservation Center.

Researchers and fisheries managers around the world are working to protect and recover bluefin tuna populations. But conservation efforts must be informed by basic science: When do bluefin mature? Where do they travel in the ocean? When do they stop to eat?

From Jan. 18-20, Monterey Bay Aquarium and Stanford University will convene the world’s top bluefin researchers, policy makers and stakeholders to share cutting-edge data and new approaches to conserving these iconic species. Together, they’ll look to identify areas for international collaboration.

The Tuna Research and Conservation Center, a partnership between the Monterey Bay Aquarium and Stanford University.
The Tuna Research and Conservation Center is a partnership between Monterey Bay Aquarium and Stanford University.

The upcoming meeting is the brainchild of Stanford University professor Barbara Block, who’s devoted her research career to the hows and whys of bluefin tunas. It also reflects three decades of collaboration between Barbara and Chuck Farwell, the Aquarium’s Tuna Research and Conservation Manager.

In 1993, Barbara was recruited to Stanford from the University of Chicago. During the visit, she and Chuck hatched a plan to join forces and build a tuna facility at Stanford: the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC). They hoped to jointly accomplish two missions: to help the Aquarium exhibit tunas, and to start a research facility specializing in the biology of these Olympic-caliber athletes.

The science of “fish and chips”

For more than 20 years, the TRCC team has focused on big-picture tuna challenges. First up was learning how to keep yellowfin and bluefin tunas in captivity — research that eventually enabled the Aquarium to display the sleek predators in the Open Sea exhibit.

Tuna in a TRCC tank. Photo ©Monterey Bay Aquarium, by Tyson V. Rininger
Tuna in a TRCC tank.

In 1996, the TRCC team began asking where tunas go in the wild. Barbara had worked with the father of tuna biology, Dr. Frank Carey (to whom the TRCC lab is dedicated), to track tunas with telemetry. Using tracking technology, the team  has explored questions of where tunas travel in the ocean and how their bodies handle the extreme conditions they face on their migrations — between continents, from subtropical to temperate waters, and to depths of more than 6,000 feet. Their findings are helping inform conservation practices that could help bluefin tuna populations recover in years to come.

The TRCC team has mapped the migrations of hundreds of Pacific bluefin tuna.
The TRCC team has mapped the migrations of hundreds of Pacific bluefin tuna.

The TRCC team’s research has been especially challenging and transformative for one reason: It’s difficult to understand where animals go, and what they do, when they’re underwater and far from shore.

“Most of us from [a] ship — even I — look out at the ocean and see a homogeneous sea,” Barbara explained during a 2010 TED talk. “We don’t know where the structure is. We can’t tell where the watering holes are, like we can on an African plain.”

Using the “fish and chips” strategy, TRCC scientists have uncovered critical information about where tunas travel. In the early 2000s, they documented tunas making transoceanic journeys. Some of the bluefin born in Japan travel to the California coast, and some born in the Gulf of Mexico travel to the European coast. The discovery of these fishes’ highly migratory behavior has greatly improved our understanding of all three bluefin species, and informs international negotiations on conserving bluefin tuna populations.

Warm-blooded but cold-hearted

Other studies have uncovered where bluefin tunas eat and where they spawn — two crucial bits of information when it comes to protecting them and essential tuna habitats. A recent paper in the journal Science Advances identified key bluefin tuna feeding locations in the Pacific, and determined they prefer searching for food in specific conditions.

Chuck Farwell at the Tuna Research and Conservation Center. Photo ©Monterey Bay Aquarium, by Tyson V. Rininger
Chuck Farwell checks in on fish at the Tuna Research and Conservation Center.

“They tend to select a certain temperature range to live in,” Chuck explains. “They also have the ability to dive and explore in very warm or very cold water, for short periods of time.”

In collaboration with tuna researchers in Japan, Chuck and the TRCC have been working in the Sea of Japan to find out where Pacific bluefin spawn, and what habitat the young fish utilize as they develop. Their work should be published later this year.

The TRCC team is making important discoveries about bluefin physiology, too. Unlike most fishes, tuna are warm-blooded, or “endothermic,” meaning they can heat their bodies above the temperature of the surrounding ocean. But not every body part gets warmed equally. Bluefin maintain heat in their eyes, brain, swimming muscles and guts. But their hearts are cold, experiencing temperature drops of tens of degrees Celsius during deep dives. How do tuna manage to keep their hearts pumping at temperatures that would stop a human heart?

Barbara Block and other TRCC researchers have perfected the art of tagging giant bluefin tuna at sea.
Barbara Block and other TRCC researchers have perfected the art of tagging giant bluefin tuna at sea.

In 2015, Barbara and colleagues published a paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B that answered this question. They found that adrenaline was the secret. Cold temperatures trigger an adrenaline rush, which helps maintain the level of calcium in tuna hearts. Without calcium, the heart would not be able to beat normally at extremely cold temperatures.

In May, Barbara will receive the 2016 Peter Benchley Ocean Award for Excellence in Science. The award is just one of several she has earned over the past two decades — including a MacArthur Foundation “genius grant” — but her tireless work is far from finished. There are still hundreds of questions to be answered, more bluefin to track, and populations to preserve.

A chance to inspire change

BluefinTunaAM494_2
Illustration of an Atlantic bluefin tuna – one of three bluefin tuna species, along with southern and Pacific.

By tagging bluefin tuna in the wild and learning more about their physiology in captivity, the TRCC team is producing data crucial to sustainable management. Barbara hopes that by bringing together global scientists, fishers, managers and policymakers, we can ensure that collaboration increases, transfer of knowledge improves, and the steep decline of bluefin populations in the Pacific and the western Atlantic reverses in her lifetime.

Chuck has high hopes the Bluefin Futures Symposium will bring the science to bear on management solutions. “Everyone at the Aquarium that’s involved in this has high expectations there will be positive outcomes,” he says.

Learn more about the Bluefin Futures Symposium at www.bluefinfutures2016.org.

— Diana LaScala-Gruenewald

Featured photo: Dr. Barbara Block was honored in the Rolex Awards for Enterprise in 2012. Photo by Rolex.

Chuck Farwell: Tuna Scientist, Mentor, Fish Whisperer

No two days are the same in the life of Chuck Farwell, manager of the Aquarium’s Tuna Research and Conservation Program. Some days he’s helping the husbandry team maintain our stock of Pacific bluefin tuna. Other days he’s on a boat at sea, surgically implanting electronic tracking tags into the bellies of fish. And some days he’s in Japan, advocating for the conservation and preservation of the Pacific bluefin tuna.

Chuck Farwell at the TRCC
Chuck Farwell at the TRCC

Chuck has been working with tuna since the 1960s, when he first surveyed albacore tuna ranges for the California Department of Fish and Wildlife. He joined the Aquarium before it opened in 1984, with a long-term vision of developing husbandry techniques to allow us to keep and maintain tuna. At the time, no aquarium outside Japan had ever kept tuna on permanent exhibit. In 1996, Monterey became the first, with displays of yellowfin and bluefin tuna.

Now, Chuck focuses on Pacific bluefin tuna, large predators that can migrate across ocean basins in a matter of weeks. They’re beautiful, lightning-fast and as majestic as they are delicious. The species is prized among seafood enthusiasts – primarily for the high-end sushi trade.

Dramatic population collapse Continue reading Chuck Farwell: Tuna Scientist, Mentor, Fish Whisperer

Feeding hotspots for Pacific bluefin tuna – discovered

After chowing down a big meal, you might feel your belly warm as your stomach muscles and digestive organs set to work breaking your food into smaller and smaller pieces rich in nutrients. A bluefin tuna’s stomach experiences a similar spike in temperature when it gulps down a mouthful of juicy sardines.

Chuck Farwell of the Monterey Bay Aquarium and Barbara Block of Stanford University tag a Pacific bluefin tuna for the study. Photo courtesy Tuna Research and Conservation Center
Chuck Farwell of the Monterey Bay Aquarium and Barbara Block of Stanford University tag a Pacific bluefin tuna for the study. Photo courtesy Tuna Research and Conservation Center

Now, scientists at Stanford University, Monterey Bay Aquarium and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have devised a way to measure that internal temperature increase in the fish – and connect it to how much the tuna ate and where it consumed its meal.

This is the first work to measure how much energy aquatic animals consume in the wild, and has allowed researchers to identify favorite dining spots for Pacific bluefin tuna along the North American coastline. The findings are published online in Science Advances, and could help develop conservation policies to protect a species that’s in steep decline.

Pacific bluefin tuna are superbly streamlined, bullet-shaped fish, with powerful swimming muscles capable of powering transoceanic travels. Unlike most other bony fishes, they are warm bodied, able to elevate their internal tissue temperatures above that of the surrounding water.

“Bluefin tuna are the pinnacle of bony fish evolution, endothermic or warm-bodied in a manner that rivals the metabolic performances of birds and mammals,” said senior author Barbara Block, a professor of marine sciences at Stanford’s Hopkins Marine Station and a senior fellow at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment.

Following the fish

Bluefin tuna remain warm by capturing the metabolic heat produced as their swimming muscles contract with every tailbeat. This happens via specialized net-like blood vessels, called counter-current heat exchangers, in their muscles and digestive organs that prevent heat loss through the gills. Maintaining warmer-than-water body temperatures allows the fish to swim more efficiently and spend less energy digesting food, and enables them to thrive in a wide range of ecological niches.

At the Tuna Research and Conservation Center, scientists learned to correlate digestion of precise quantities of food with changes in tunas' internal temperatures. Photo Monterey Bay Aquarium/Tyson Rininger
At the Tuna Research and Conservation Center, scientists learned to correlate digestion of precise quantities of food with changes in tunas’ internal temperatures. Photo Monterey Bay Aquarium/Tyson Rininger

The researchers focused on this thermal characteristic to measure energy intake, and from that to surmise the animals’ daily foraging habits. Researchers implanted small data-logging tags in more than 500 tunas off the coast of southern California and Mexico, and recorded the fishes’ body temperature, ambient water temperature, and their locations and diving patterns as they searched for prey. With the help of fishers, the researchers recovered more than one-third of the tags, containing data records as long as three years as the fish made seasonal migrations from the waters off Mexico to Oregon.

Previously, observation work led by Rebecca Whitlock, a postdoctoral scholar at Stanford, made with fish held at the Tuna Research and Conservation Center, had created a model to translate changes in tuna heat signatures into caloric intake. At the center – a partnership between Stanford and the Monterey Bay Aquarium – researchers could count single sardines or squid consumed by individual tunas and match the warming signal in the stomach to the energy value of the prey item digested.

Documenting their dining

The thermal data showed exactly when the tunas ate a meal, and the researchers estimated how much energy a free-swimming bluefin receives per unit of time, as well as how temperature changes impact that energy intake.

Researchers fit a data tag in a Pacific bluefin tuna, one of 500 implanted as part of the study. Photo Monterey Bay Aquarium/Andre Boustany

“We’ve been able to follow what Pacific bluefin tuna do in the open sea and record their feeding and meal size, every day for up to three years,” said Whitlock, the lead author of the new paper. “Combining laboratory observations with electronic tagging can provide amazingly rich data and insights into the life of a wild marine predator.”

Tag data showed that wild tunas consumed prey on 90 percent of the days observed during the study. The empirical data analyses and energetic model output allowed scientists to chart precisely how much the fish ate – typically sardines and squid – and the total energy they consumed as they journeyed through the ocean.

A roadmap in the ocean

From this, the scientists mapped the position data from the tags to satellite observations of sea temperature, chlorophyll levels and ocean currents – all factors that can combine to create nutrient-rich feeding grounds. The location of these feeding grounds coincided well with successful tuna feedings, though interestingly the fish didn’t always camp out at places with the best conditions to take advantage of the buffet.

“Foraging success was correlated to environmental features,” said co-author Elliott Hazen, a research ecologist with NOAA’s Southwest Fisheries Science Center. “Tuna may use the oceanography as a roadmap to move from hotspot to hotspot, and temperature appears to be the most important environmental cue.”

Interestingly, the study demonstrated a potential tradeoff between feeding in the richest areas and avoiding the physiological constraints associated with feeding in waters that are either very cold (which slows the heart) or very warm (which are energetically taxing). This answered a long-standing question about the species’ traditional range limits, from north of Oregon to south of the Baja Peninsula, despite the fact that close relatives of bluefin (yellowfin and albacore tuna) thrive outside of those latitudes.

Good places to digest

Tag data showed that tuna tend to stay in waters where they can remain at an optimum temperature to promote rapid digestion. Too high or too low an ocean temperature, and the increased demands of digestion can strain the cardiovascular system.

Preferred feeding habitats varied by season and by size of the fish.
Preferred feeding habitats varied by season and by size of the fish.

“Digestion is metabolically costly, and the bluefin are doing it most efficiently,” Block said. “Our results suggest that physiological constraints on the tunas’ whole organismal performance constrain their thermal distribution, and thus the latitudinal distribution of the fish.”

Block calls this portion of the Pacific Ocean the “Blue Serengeti,” an open ocean ecospace where currents concentrate nutrients and plankton, attracting forage fish such as sardines or anchovies, which in turn lure larger predatory fish such as bluefin tuna.

Understanding the locations of Blue Serengeti “watering holes” for these large migratory fish remains a mystery, but is a key part in planning better conservation efforts that protect essential habitat. Linking the regions both physiologically and to environmental correlates has been an objective of the research team.

The new work helps close that gap by identifying feeding hotspots (areas of highly successful feeding) for Pacific bluefin tuna: along the Baja Peninsula in June and July, off Northern California from October to November, and near Central California in January and February.

“Our results add to our understanding of predator-prey dynamics in the California Current,” Block said. “By understanding where bluefin forage most, we can help protect these places and improve efforts to rebuild Pacific bluefin tuna stocks.”

– Bjorn Carey is a life sciences public information officer for Stanford News Service

Learn more about the aquarium’s efforts to recover Pacific bluefin tuna.

Reference: Rebecca E. Whitlock, Elliott L. HazenAndreas WalliCharles FarwellSteven J. BogradDavid G. FoleyMichael Castleton and Barbara A. Block. “Direct quantification of energy intake in an apex marine predator suggests physiology is a key driver of migration.” Science Advances  25 Sep 2015: Vol. 1, no. 8, e1400270 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1400270

Kristen Weiss: Sea otters, kelp and ocean tipping points

Through September 2, Monterey Bay Aquarium and Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary are hosting Big Blue Live – an unprecedented series of live natural history broadcasts from PBS and the BBC. Big Blue Live highlights the remarkable marine life that gathers in Monterey Bay each summer, and celebrates an ocean conservation success story of global significance. We’re publishing guest commentaries about conservation efforts that contribute to the health of the bay and our ocean planet. This is from Kristen Weiss, an early career science fellow at the Center for Ocean Solutions. The Center is a collaboration among the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment and Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, the Aquarium and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute.

Kristen Weiss
Kristen Weiss

The story of sea otter loss and recovery has had dramatic consequences for the health of Monterey Bay’s kelp forests. Less than 100 years ago, sea otters were thought to be extinct along the California coast as the result of rampant overhunting by fur traders. While otter hunting was officially banned in 1911, there seemed little hope of recovery at the time.

Then, in 1938, a small population of otters was discovered off the Big Sur coast just south of Monterey. Since then, sea otters have made a modest comeback (about 3,000 individuals) thanks to their protected status.

A remnant colony of sea otters was rediscovered off the Big Sur coast in the 1930s. Photo © William L. Morgan/California Views Photo Archives
A remnant colony of sea otters was rediscovered off the Big Sur coast in the 1930s. Photo © William L. Morgan/California Views Photo Archives

They’re now a common sight in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary where they have helped catalyze the regrowth of kelp habitat. As Dr. Steve Palumbi of Stanford University’s Hopkins Marine Station writes in his book The Death and Life of Monterey Bay, once otters recolonized Monterey Bay “they fed happily on sea urchins, and they left luxuriant kelp forest growing in their wake.”

Kelp Forests reach a tipping point

In nature, one plus one does not always equal two. Sometimes, small changes in human pressures or environmental conditions can result in disproportionately large responses in the ecosystem – potentially even collapse. Ecosystems can respond to stressors in nonlinear ways, displaying ecological thresholds (also known as “tipping points”) beyond which systems undergo dramatic change. The Center for Ocean Solutions is a collaborator in the Ocean Tipping Points project that aims to understand and predict where ecological thresholds might exist in marine habitats such as kelp forests.

By eating sea urchins and other grazing animals, sea otters allow kelp forests to thrive. Photo by Neil Fisher

As was the case in Monterey Bay, the loss of sea otters typically marks an abrupt tipping point for kelp forest habitat. As a keystone species, otters maintain kelp habitat by eating sea urchins, the main consumers of kelp. In the absence of otters, urchin populations can grow unchecked, their out-of-control grazing undermining kelp forests and creating “urchin barrens” devoid of the shelter and biodiversity that kelp ecosystems typically offer. Where kelp once harbored diverse assemblages of juvenile and adult fishes, invertebrates like urchins and shellfish now dominate a simplified habitat.

When such tipping points occur, the distribution of ecosystem benefits to humans can shift considerably. For example, kelp habitats support important commercial fish species and attract diving and snorkeling tourism. However, in the absence of otters, urchin fishermen often gain substantial benefits and may be opposed to management interventions aimed at otter reestablishment. These types of trade-offs highlight the difficulty of balancing social and ecological values in marine management.

 To help managers address social and ecological complexity, Ocean Tipping Points project collaborators have outlined seven principles for managing ecosystems that are prone to tipping points (see infographic below), so that managers can better predict and prevent unwanted tipping points.

Hope for sea otters in Monterey Bay

In Monterey Bay, marine managers, scientists, and conservationists are working to promote sea otter recovery through research and active management. The Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Sea Otter Program has been active for over 30 years, conducting important research on sea otters as well as caring for injured or stranded otters. To maintain healthy populations of otters, we need healthy marine environments.

The seven principles of managing for tipping points, applied to the kelp forest ecosystem. (Graphic by Jackie Mandoski and Courtney Scarborough)
The seven principles of managing for tipping points, applied to the kelp forest ecosystem. (Graphic by Jackie Mandoski and Courtney Scarborough)

At the Center for Ocean Solutions, researchers are working on projects such as the Kelp Forest Array and Environmental DNA to collect important information about water quality and species biodiversity in kelp forest habitat. These projects are helping identify what human-caused and natural threats may be impacting the bay so that we can better protect sea otter habitat into the future.

The expansion of sea otters along the Monterey coastline “left behind a string of changed shorelines and restored bay,” writes Palumbi. “Where there was once subtidal rock bristling with urchin spines, there now bloomed kelp forest with sea urchins and abalone restricted to crevices in the rock. Where kelp bloomed, there now thrived a bustling community of fish and invertebrates.”

While sea otters still have a long way to go to reach numbers comparable to historical population sizes, their initial recovery along California’s central coast  and the related comeback of healthy kelp forest habitat here in Monterey Bay – offers hope for other species and regions affected by significant human activity.

Learn how the Center for Ocean Solutions is tackling major challenges to ocean health.

New research: Steep decline for shark attack rate in California

It’s summer beachgoing season and with the recent spate of shark bite reports in the Carolinas, sharks are more top of mind than ever. But are shark attacks really on the rise?

Research published today by Stanford University’s Hopkins Marine Station and the Monterey Bay Aquarium shows that, indeed, the overall number of shark bites on the California coast is climbing gradually every year. But there’s a catch. Since 1950, the annual rate of shark attacks has actually decreased – and fairly dramatically.

Salvador Jorgensen and colleagues tagging adult white sharks off the Farallon Islands near San Francisco.
Salvador Jorgensen and colleagues tagging adult white sharks off the Farallon Islands near San Francisco.

Using data from the Global Shark Attack File, Aquarium shark biologist Sal Jorgensen and his Stanford colleagues discovered a surprising story. The research team noticed that even though the number of attacks was rising, they weren’t keeping pace with the tripling of California’s coastal population – from 7 million people in 1950 to 21 million coastal residents by 2013.

The numbers of surfers, scuba divers and swimmers rose at much faster rates than the overall population. So when the team weighted their data to reflect the number of ocean users, they found that the likelihood or rate of an individual being bit by a white shark dropped substantially – by 91 percent between 1959 and 2013.

“This shows that the goals of public safety and conserving the ocean wilderness, intact with top predators, are actually compatible.” Sal says. “Our results also suggest that attacks could be further reduced by modifying when and where we get in the ocean.”

Using a statistical model, the team was able to determine the most and least risky times and locations for shark attacks. According to their data, October through November – when sharks are feeding on seals along the coast – are the most likely times for attacks to occur. March through May are relatively safer times to be in the water – when most white sharks are far offshore at the mysterious White Shark Café.

Infographic courtesy Stoked School of Surf, South Africa

The authors noted that beachgoers and water enthusiasts face many greater perils than a shark attack. Hospitalizations from drowning and scuba-related decompression sickness occur at much higher rates than those from shark bites.

“Our disproportionate fear of shark attacks is amplified by a lack of having control when we enter the ocean wilderness,” notes Sal, an avid surfer himself. “This type of data can give people the ability to have more control and minimize their risk.”

For instance, the results showed it’s 1,566 times safer to surf between San Diego and Los Angeles in March, compared with surfing between October and November in Mendocino County.

Making these types of informed choices would be far more effective at increasing public safety than culling, the research finds. In Australia, officials have tried to reduce public risk by killing white sharks in a large culling program – a tragic and uninformed approach. In fact, culling sharks is ineffective.

Where and when you choose to surf , swim or scuba dive in California can dramatically reduce your risk.
Where and when you choose to surf , swim or scuba dive in California can dramatically reduce your risk.

“These programs often serve more to reassure people rather than effectively increase beach safety,” says Francesco Ferretti, a postdoctoral research fellow at Hopkins Marine Station and the study’s lead author.

Though culls are meant to target white sharks, other shark species are often killed as well. Because of the importance of all shark species to maintaining the balance of the food web, culls can dramatically disrupt the ecosystem. And they’re extremely costly. The cull in western Australia is slated to cost $22 million.

Francesco says the money could be more wisely used to promote research and awareness of sharks, and to come up with more effective solutions to keep people from encountering sharks.

In California, white shark attack rates have declined so much that the researchers wonder if perhaps the numbers reflect a decrease in the shark population over the last half decade. An alternative possibility is that as populations of marine mammals – adult white sharks’ favorite prey – have bounced back, the sharks have relocated closer to their rookeries.

Marine mammals, especially elephant seals, tend to congregate on island beaches far away from those used by people. The Aquarium’s ongoing research with Hopkins colleagues may provide some answers in the near future.

Cynthia McKelvey

Reference:

Feretti, F., Jorgensen, S. Chapple, T.,K, De Leo, G., Micheli, F. 2015. Reconciling predator conservation with public safety Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. (Vol. 13, Issue 6)

 

Striking a balance: deep sea mining and ecosystem protection

Thousands of feet below the ocean’s surface lies a hidden world of undiscovered species, ancient animals and unique seabed habitats—as well as a vast untapped store of natural resources including valuable metals and rare-earth minerals. There’s growing demand globally to tap these minerals, which are key components in everything from cars to computers, skyscrapers and smartphones. And there are proposals around the world to begin mining the seafloor: in the Indian Ocean, off Papua New Guinea, and in the Red Sea.

This Relicanthus sp. -- a new species from a new order of Cnidaria -- lives on sponge stalks attached to mineral nodules more than 12,000 feet below the surface. Credit: Craig Smith and Diva Amon, ABYSSLINE Project.
This Relicanthus sp. — a new species from a new order of Cnidaria — lives on sponge stalks attached to mineral nodules more than 12,000 feet below the surface. Credit: Craig Smith and Diva Amon, ABYSSLINE Project.

Deep sea mining will have impacts on ecosystems that are lightly mapped and poorly understood. So, researchers from the Center for Ocean Solutions in Monterey and co-authors from leading institutions around the world propose a strategy for balancing commercial extraction of deep-sea resources with protection of diverse seabed habitats. Their approach, published this week in the journal Science, is intended to inform upcoming discussions by the International Seabed Authority (ISA) that will lay the groundwork for future deep-sea environmental protection and mining regulations.

A 26-year old test mining track created on the seafloor  in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ)  illustrates the extremely slow recovery of abyssal ecosystems from physical disturbance. Credit: Ifremer, Nodinaut cruise (2004)
A 26-year old test mining track created on the seafloor in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ) illustrates the extremely slow recovery of abyssal ecosystems from physical disturbance. Credit: Ifremer, Nodinaut cruise (2004)

“Our purpose is to point out that the ISA has an important opportunity to create networks of no-mining marine protected areas (MPAs) as part of the regulatory framework they are considering at their July meeting,” says lead author Lisa Wedding, an early career science fellow at the Center for Ocean Solutions.  “The establishment of regional MPA networks in the deep sea could potentially benefit both mining and biodiversity interests by providing more economic certainty and ecosystem protection.”

Adds co-author Sarah Reiter, an ocean policy research analyst at the Monterey Bay Aquarium: “We’re advancing an approach that’s grounded in the best available science, consistent with international law, and feasible given political will.”

The Center for Ocean Solutions is a collaboration among Stanford University, Monterey Bay Aquarium and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). It works to solve the major problems facing the ocean and prepares leaders to take on these challenges.

Take an in-depth look at the research and the issues.